Crude oil sometimes called petroleum is found in the Earth's crust. Millions of years ago, small animals and plants died and fell to the bottom of the sea. Their remains were covered by mud. The mud eventually turned to rock. This rock put a lot of pressure on the dead animals and plants. Rocks around them also heated them up. Together the heat and the pressure turned the remains into crude oil. It was important that no air or oxygen was present. Materials like crude oil and coal which formed from living things many years ago, are called fossil fuels. Crude oil takes millions of years to form, so when we have used it all, we cannot quickly get more.
Crude Oil naturally occurring unrefined liquid fossil fuel composed of hydrocarbon deposits and other organic materials. Crude oil can be refined to produce useable products such as gasoline or Mogas or Petrol, Gasoil or diesel or heating oil, jet fuel or aviation Fuel, kerosene, LPG and Bitumen and literally thousands of other products called petrochemicals.
It is a non-renewable resource as it can't be replaced naturally at the rate we consume it and is therefore a limited resource. The demand for crude oil is dependent on global economic conditions as well as market speculation.
Gas oil is a group of petroleum distillation products having boiling points between kerosene and lubricating oil. Gasoil is also called as Diesel Oil. This distillate fuel is used in compression-ignition engines (as opposed to spark-ignition engines powered by gasoline or natural gas). Gasoil is Heavier than gasoline.
Gas oil or Diesel oil engines covert the fuel into energy through a series of small explosions or combustions, the major difference is the way these explosions happen.
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.
Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. The range of their sizes (molecular weights or carbon numbers) is defined by the requirements for the product, such as the freezing or smoke point. Kerosene-type jet fuel (including Jet A and Jet A-1) has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16 (carbon atoms per molecule); wide-cut or naphtha-type jet fuel (including Jet B), between about 5 and 15.
Mogas also called Gasoline or Petrol is a volatile mixture of flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived chiefly from crude petroleum and used principally as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Mogas is motor vehicle gas or gasoline.
It is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid and consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives.
The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines is measured by its octane rating. Gasoline is produced in several grades of octane rating.
Liquefied petroleum gas or LPG, a highly flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles. LPG is also referred to as simply Propane or Butane. LPG is prepared by refining Petroleum or "wet" natural gas, and is almost entirely derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of petroleum (crude oil), or extracted from petroleum or natural gas streams as they emerge from the ground.
It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and refrigerant replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used as a vehicle fuel it is often referred to as auto gas.
It currently provides about 3% of all energy consumed, and burns relatively cleanly with no soot and very few sulfur emissions. It is usually supplied in pressurized steel vessels.
Fuel oil, also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil, is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains and refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, i.e., heavier than Gasoil, Jet A1, gasoline and naphtha. Broadly speaking, fuel oil is any liquid fuel that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power.
Fuel Oil has many uses like heating homes, Fuel for vessels and Power Generation. Residential use of fuel oils is classified as Number 1, 2, or 3, and industrial ones are classified as Number 4, 5, or 6 according to their specific gravity (higher the number, higher the sp. gravity). Number 5 and 6 are used mainly for powering ships and are also called bunker oils.
Bitumen is also known as Asphalt, is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. The primary use (70%) of asphalt/bitumen is in road construction. It is principally obtained as a residual product in petroleum refineries after higher fractions like gas, petrol, kerosene and diesel, etc., are removed. It is a black or dark brown non-crystalline oil or viscous material having adhesive properties derived from petroleum crude either by natural or by refinery processes.
It is generally used for civil engineering works like constructions of roads, runways and platforms, water proofing to prevent water seepage, mastic floorings for factories and Warehouses, canal lining to prevent erosion, dump-proof courses for masonry, tank foundation, joint filling material for masonry etc.
Solvents are liquids which have the property to dissolve substances without reacting with them. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid or a gas. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning e.g., tetrachloroethylene, as paint thinners e.g., toluene, turpentine, as nail polish removers and glue solvents acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, in spot removers e.g., hexane, petrol ether, in detergents citrus terpenes and in perfumes ethanol. Many Petrochemical solvents are derived during the distillation of Crude Oil.
Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes.
A substance introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move is called Lubricant. It may also have the function of transmitting forces, transporting foreign particles, or heating or cooling the surfaces. Typically lubricants contain 90% base oil most often petroleum fractions called mineral oils and less than 10% additives. Additives deliver reduced friction and wear, increased viscosity, improved viscosity index, resistance to corrosion and oxidation, aging or contamination, etc.
Grease is a semisolid lubricant and generally consists of a soap emulsified with mineral or vegetable oil. The characteristic feature of greases is that they possess a high initial viscosity, which thins upon the application of shear & drops to give the effect of an oil-lubricated bearing of approximately the same viscosity as the base oil used in the grease. Greases are applied to mechanisms that can only be lubricated infrequently and where lubricating oil would not stay in position. They also act as sealants to prevent ingress of water and incompressible materials. Grease-lubricated bearings have greater frictional characteristics due to their high viscosity.